Lunar eclipse 2019: How to view the super blood wolf moon in the UK

Lunar eclipse 2019: How to view the super blood wolf moon in the UKThe Moon will turn red in the early hours of Monday morning as Britain experiences its last total lunar eclipse for 10 years. The Moon will start to darken at 2.35am with full eclipse beginning at 4.40am. It will be free of the Earth’s shadow by 7.49am. It  is the last chance for UK observers to see a total lunar eclipse in its entirety until 2029. A total lunar eclipse occurs when the Earth passes exactly between the Sun and the Moon creating a shadow which stops solar rays reaching the lunar surface. Spectators can expect the Moon to begin to darken slowly before turning red as it becomes completely caught in Earth’s shade. Sometimes the eclipsed Moon is a deep red colour, almost disappearing from view, and sometimes it can be quite bright. January’s full Moon is also known as a ‘wolf moon’, a name deriving from Native American Tribes who said wolves would howl outside villages during full moons at the beginning of the year. What is a total lunar eclipse and how does it occur? The eclipse will occur when the Moon is at its closest point to Earth - making it a supermoon, so it will appear 14 per cent larger and 30 per cent brighter. In Britain the Moon will be above the horizon throughout the eclipse, though from the extreme southeast of England the Sun will have risen as it comes to an end. The red effect is due to Earth’s atmosphere. Without an atmosphere the Moon would appear black or even totally invisible when it was within Earth’s shadow. But because Earth’s atmosphere extends about 50 miles up, during a total eclipse, although the Moon is in shadow, there is a ring around our planet through which the Sun’s rays still pass. Unlike the other wavelengths the Sun's red light is scattered much less by air allowing it to travel through the atmosphere where other colours are lost. Finally it is bent by a process of refraction as it leaves the atmosphere on the opposite side, channelling it on to the Moon’s surface. Lunar eclipses always happen at a full Moon as this is when it moves behind the Earth and into line with the Earth and Sun but most of the time no eclipse takes place because the Moon's orbit is slightly tilted so it normally passes a little above or below the Earth’s shadow. Why does a total lunar eclipse not occur at every full moon? A full moon occurs every 29.5 days when Earth is directly aligned between the sun and the moon. The moon's orbital path around the Earth takes place at an angle of 5 degrees to Earth's orbital plane around the sun, otherwise known as the ecliptic. Lunar eclipses can only take place when a full moon occurs around a lunar node, the point where the two orbital planes meets. This means total lunar eclipses do not occur as frequently because the Earth's orbit around the sun is not in the same plane as the moon's orbit around the Earth. What is a blood moon and is it different to a total lunar eclipse? The moon's usual bright white hue may turn a burnt red-orange colour during a total lunar eclipse because sunlight passing through the Earth's atmosphere is bent towards it. Colours in the spectrum with shorter wavelengths are blocked and filtered away while those with longer wavelengths such as red and orange are able to pass through. The depth and darkness of the deep blood red varies during each eclipse, depending on how clear the atmosphere is at the time. Whenever this process of refraction happens, the moon is given the nickname 'blood moon'. A super blood moon rises over buildings on January 31, 2018 in Beijing, China Credit: VCG And this eclipse will also be a super moon? Yes. A super moon - which is when a moon appears 30 per cent brighter and 14 per cent bigger to the naked eye - happens when a full moon is at the point in its orbit that brings it closest to Earth Coincedentally this full moon - which is also a blood moon and also a total lunar eclipse - will be a supermoon, too. Supermoon is not an astrological term though. It's scientific name is actually Perigee Full Moon, but supermoon is more catchy and is used by the media to describe our celestial neighbour when it gets up close. Two more supermoons will occur this year: the second on February 19 and the third on March 21. Some people are also calling this moon a wolf moon... Yes, it's a wolf moon too - although this doesn't tell us anything about the state of the moon. Instead, the moniker 'Wolf Moon' was given to every January moon by Native Americans. The early Native Americans didn't record time using months of the Julian or Gregorian calendar. Instead tribes gave each full moon a nickname to keep track of the seasons and lunar months. Most of the names relate to an activity or an event that took place at the time in each location. However, it wasn't a uniform system and tribes tended to name and count moons differently. Some, for example, counted four seasons a year while others counted five. Others defined a year as 12 moons, while others said there were 13. Colonial Americans adopted some of the moon names and applied them to their own calendar system which is why they're still in existence today, according to the Farmer’s Almanac. The January moon was named Wolf Moon because villagers used to hear packs of wolves howling in hunger around this time of the year. Its other name is the Old Moon. What time can you see the blood moon eclipse? Observers in the British Isles who are willing to stay awake through the early hours of January 21 will be able to enjoy the total lunar eclipse. The totality in the UK is expected to last 1 hour, 1 minute and 58 seconds. However the peak of the eclipse will be at 05:12 GMT, which means you'll have to get up early to be able to catch it. At 02:36 GMT the moon will begin to darken as it enters the penumbral shadow and at 03:33 GMT the partial eclipse will begin, darkening further as it enters the Earth's umbra.  From approximately 04:41 GMT the moon will have completely entered the umbra shadow and the dark orange-red hue will appear in the sky, marking the start of the more visible total lunar eclipse. The maximum eclipse, where the moon is closest to the centre of the umbra, will occur at 05:12 GMT, with the total eclipse ending at 05:43 GMT. As the moon loses its blood red colour, it begins to enter the penumbral shadow again and the partial eclipse will end at 06:50 GMT.  While the moon continues to appear darker than usual, the penumbral eclipse will conclude at 07:49 GMT. The stages of the Moon during a total lunar eclipse Credit: Desiree Martin/AFP Blood moons and lunar eclipses of the past Christopher Columbus, an Italian explorer, created fear in 1504 after he used knowledge of an upcoming blood moon to convince the Arawak Indians to help him while stranded in Jamaica.  He led them to believe their lack of support would anger God and result in a blood moon in the sky. When the moon began to "bleed", the Arawak Indians were fooled into giving Columbus and his crew food. In more recent years, the total lunar eclipse of July 16, 2000 - which was seen in the Pacific Ocean, eastern Asia and Australia - was one of the longest to ever be recorded, lasting 1 hour 46 minutes.  The last lunar eclipse took place on July 27, 2018; and the totality spanned across 1 hour 43 minutes, marking the longest eclipse of the 21st century. Blood moon myths and tales From religious theories to modern day conspiracies, there are a range of myths and tales linked to the concept of a blood moon. Some Christian conspiracists consider a blood moon to be an apocalyptic sign from the heavens while the Inca thought it represented an attack by a cosmic jaguar.  The Hupa, a Native American tribe from northern California, believed the moon had 20 wives and numerous pets including lions and snakes. When the moon didn't give them enough food to eat, they attacked it, consequently making it bleed. The Batammaliba people in Togo and Benin, Africa, believe a lunar eclipse represents a fight between the sun and the moon, which humans must learn from in terms of their own arguments. Other astronomical events in 2019 The Quadrantid meteor shower reached its maximum rate of activity on January 4, with shooting stars appearing in the sky each night up until January 6. A conjunction of Venus and Jupiter will appear in the east sky before sunrise on January 22, showing the two bright planets 2.4 degrees from each other. The Eta Aquarids Meteor Shower will be seen in dark locations after midnight on May 7, while Saturn will shine the brightest on July 9, this year, as reaches its closest approach to Earth. Plus an annular solar eclipse will take place on December 26, starting in Saudi Arabia and concluding in the Pacific Ocean, with a ring of light appearing around the moon. Lunar eclipse pics



Oil falls ahead of China data, but OPEC-led cuts support

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Bitter cold cancels some U.S. lunar eclipse festivities

Bitter cold cancels some U.S. lunar eclipse festivitiesStar gazers from Los Angeles to New York had planned to gather at parks and observatories to keep their eyes on the sky for the total eclipse, known as a super blood wolf moon, expected to appear at 11:41 p.m. EST (0441 GMT). Days earlier, it seemed the biggest threat to the cosmic fun was cloudy skies but it turned out a wet, wide-ranging snowstorm followed by a deep freeze on Sunday made driving and outdoor activities too hazardous. "It's not the snow or cloudy skies, but rather the extreme cold, and what we fear may be hazardous travel conditions," said Pennsylvania's Carbon County Environmental Center, scrapping its party in Summit Hill, Pennsylvania, 54 miles (86 km) northwest of Allentown.



Lunar eclipse 2019: How to view today's super blood wolf moon in the UK

Lunar eclipse 2019: How to view today's super blood wolf moon in the UKThe Moon will turn red in the early hours of Monday morning as Britain experiences its last total lunar eclipse for 10 years. The Moon will start to darken at 2.35am with full eclipse beginning at 4.40am. It will be free of the Earth’s shadow by 7.49am. It  is the last chance for UK observers to see a total lunar eclipse in its entirety until 2029. A total lunar eclipse occurs when the Earth passes exactly between the Sun and the Moon creating a shadow which stops solar rays reaching the lunar surface. Spectators can expect the Moon to begin to darken slowly before turning red as it becomes completely caught in Earth’s shade. Sometimes the eclipsed Moon is a deep red colour, almost disappearing from view, and sometimes it can be quite bright. January’s full Moon is also known as a ‘wolf moon’, a name deriving from Native American Tribes who said wolves would howl outside villages during full moons at the beginning of the year. What is a total lunar eclipse and how does it occur? The eclipse will occur when the Moon is at its closest point to Earth - making it a supermoon, so it will appear 14 per cent larger and 30 per cent brighter. In Britain the Moon will be above the horizon throughout the eclipse, though from the extreme southeast of England the Sun will have risen as it comes to an end. The red effect is due to Earth’s atmosphere. Without an atmosphere the Moon would appear black or even totally invisible when it was within Earth’s shadow. But because Earth’s atmosphere extends about 50 miles up, during a total eclipse, although the Moon is in shadow, there is a ring around our planet through which the Sun’s rays still pass. Unlike the other wavelengths the Sun's red light is scattered much less by air allowing it to travel through the atmosphere where other colours are lost. Finally it is bent by a process of refraction as it leaves the atmosphere on the opposite side, channelling it on to the Moon’s surface. Lunar eclipses always happen at a full Moon as this is when it moves behind the Earth and into line with the Earth and Sun but most of the time no eclipse takes place because the Moon's orbit is slightly tilted so it normally passes a little above or below the Earth’s shadow. Why does a total lunar eclipse not occur at every full moon? A full moon occurs every 29.5 days when Earth is directly aligned between the sun and the moon. The moon's orbital path around the Earth takes place at an angle of 5 degrees to Earth's orbital plane around the sun, otherwise known as the ecliptic. Lunar eclipses can only take place when a full moon occurs around a lunar node, the point where the two orbital planes meets. This means total lunar eclipses do not occur as frequently because the Earth's orbit around the sun is not in the same plane as the moon's orbit around the Earth. What is a blood moon and is it different to a total lunar eclipse? The moon's usual bright white hue may turn a burnt red-orange colour during a total lunar eclipse because sunlight passing through the Earth's atmosphere is bent towards it. Colours in the spectrum with shorter wavelengths are blocked and filtered away while those with longer wavelengths such as red and orange are able to pass through. The depth and darkness of the deep blood red varies during each eclipse, depending on how clear the atmosphere is at the time. Whenever this process of refraction happens, the moon is given the nickname 'blood moon'. A super blood moon rises over buildings on January 31, 2018 in Beijing, China Credit: VCG And this eclipse will also be a super moon? Yes. A super moon - which is when a moon appears 30 per cent brighter and 14 per cent bigger to the naked eye - happens when a full moon is at the point in its orbit that brings it closest to Earth Coincedentally this full moon - which is also a blood moon and also a total lunar eclipse - will be a supermoon, too. Supermoon is not an astrological term though. It's scientific name is actually Perigee Full Moon, but supermoon is more catchy and is used by the media to describe our celestial neighbour when it gets up close. Two more supermoons will occur this year: the second on February 19 and the third on March 21. Some people are also calling this moon a wolf moon... Yes, it's a wolf moon too - although this doesn't tell us anything about the state of the moon. Instead, the moniker 'Wolf Moon' was given to every January moon by Native Americans. The early Native Americans didn't record time using months of the Julian or Gregorian calendar. Instead tribes gave each full moon a nickname to keep track of the seasons and lunar months. Most of the names relate to an activity or an event that took place at the time in each location. However, it wasn't a uniform system and tribes tended to name and count moons differently. Some, for example, counted four seasons a year while others counted five. Others defined a year as 12 moons, while others said there were 13. Colonial Americans adopted some of the moon names and applied them to their own calendar system which is why they're still in existence today, according to the Farmer’s Almanac. The January moon was named Wolf Moon because villagers used to hear packs of wolves howling in hunger around this time of the year. Its other name is the Old Moon. What time can you see the blood moon eclipse? Observers in the British Isles who are willing to stay awake through the early hours of January 21 will be able to enjoy the total lunar eclipse. The totality in the UK is expected to last 1 hour, 1 minute and 58 seconds. However the peak of the eclipse will be at 05:12 GMT, which means you'll have to get up early to be able to catch it. At 02:36 GMT the moon will begin to darken as it enters the penumbral shadow and at 03:33 GMT the partial eclipse will begin, darkening further as it enters the Earth's umbra.  From approximately 04:41 GMT the moon will have completely entered the umbra shadow and the dark orange-red hue will appear in the sky, marking the start of the more visible total lunar eclipse. The maximum eclipse, where the moon is closest to the centre of the umbra, will occur at 05:12 GMT, with the total eclipse ending at 05:43 GMT. As the moon loses its blood red colour, it begins to enter the penumbral shadow again and the partial eclipse will end at 06:50 GMT.  While the moon continues to appear darker than usual, the penumbral eclipse will conclude at 07:49 GMT. The stages of the Moon during a total lunar eclipse Credit: Desiree Martin/AFP Blood moons and lunar eclipses of the past Christopher Columbus, an Italian explorer, created fear in 1504 after he used knowledge of an upcoming blood moon to convince the Arawak Indians to help him while stranded in Jamaica.  He led them to believe their lack of support would anger God and result in a blood moon in the sky. When the moon began to "bleed", the Arawak Indians were fooled into giving Columbus and his crew food. In more recent years, the total lunar eclipse of July 16, 2000 - which was seen in the Pacific Ocean, eastern Asia and Australia - was one of the longest to ever be recorded, lasting 1 hour 46 minutes.  The last lunar eclipse took place on July 27, 2018; and the totality spanned across 1 hour 43 minutes, marking the longest eclipse of the 21st century. Blood moon myths and tales From religious theories to modern day conspiracies, there are a range of myths and tales linked to the concept of a blood moon. Some Christian conspiracists consider a blood moon to be an apocalyptic sign from the heavens while the Inca thought it represented an attack by a cosmic jaguar.  The Hupa, a Native American tribe from northern California, believed the moon had 20 wives and numerous pets including lions and snakes. When the moon didn't give them enough food to eat, they attacked it, consequently making it bleed. The Batammaliba people in Togo and Benin, Africa, believe a lunar eclipse represents a fight between the sun and the moon, which humans must learn from in terms of their own arguments. Other astronomical events in 2019 The Quadrantid meteor shower reached its maximum rate of activity on January 4, with shooting stars appearing in the sky each night up until January 6. A conjunction of Venus and Jupiter will appear in the east sky before sunrise on January 22, showing the two bright planets 2.4 degrees from each other. The Eta Aquarids Meteor Shower will be seen in dark locations after midnight on May 7, while Saturn will shine the brightest on July 9, this year, as reaches its closest approach to Earth. Plus an annular solar eclipse will take place on December 26, starting in Saudi Arabia and concluding in the Pacific Ocean, with a ring of light appearing around the moon. Lunar eclipse pics



Japan’s Top Stock Surges 305% in One Year

Japan’s Top Stock Surges 305% in One YearBrainPad Inc. posted a 305 percent gain, the best among the more than 2,100 constituents of the benchmark Topix index, as the data analysis company’s profit started to strengthen, reassuring investors of its ability to make money. BrainPad, which uses artificial intelligence to analyze consumption trends for its customers, surprised investors last January when it reported operating profit that was triple its own forecast for the second half of 2017. “People have finally realized that we’re a company capable of making good profit,” Ishikawa said in an interview at BrainPad’s Tokyo headquarters.



Tokyo's Top Stock Surges 305% in Year But CFO Sees It as Cheap

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Explainer: Mexico's fuel woes rooted in chronic theft, troubled refineries

Explainer: Mexico's fuel woes rooted in chronic theft, troubled refineriesOn Friday, at least 79 people died from a powerful explosion at a gasoline pipeline in central Mexico that had been punctured by fuel thieves. Relatives of some of the victims said fuel shortages stemming from the government's crackdown led people to risk their lives filling plastic containers from the leak. President Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador, who took office in December, said the tragedy has not weakened his faith in the plan.



Focus turns to Mexico plan to thwart fuel theft after blast kills 79

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Planet Nine may not exist, say scientists, after finding simpler explanation

Planet Nine may not exist, say scientists, after finding simpler explanationWhen the mysterious ‘Planet Nine’ was first hypothesised in 2016 it was hailed as the solution to the strange orbits of far-flung icy objects and the unexplained tilt in the Solar System. The finding came 10 years after Pluto had been unceremoniously downgraded to ‘asteroid number 134340’ and led to hopes that our star system would soon be restored to nine worlds. Yet despite widespread searches by the most powerful telescopes, Planet Nine has never been spotted, and now astrophysicists have put forward a ‘less dramatic’ explanation. They think that the Kuiper Belt objects are being tugged by the combined gravitational force of a rotating ring of icy chunks orbiting the Sun beyond Neptune. When the heavy spinning disc was inputted into computer models of the Solar System it created the same gravitational pull as Planet Nine, and is a far more likely explanation for the anomaly. The explanation has been dubbed 'the shepherding disk hypothesis.'  An artist's rendering shows the distant view from "Planet Nine" back towards the sun Credit:  California Institute of Technology (Caltech)  “The Planet Nine hypothesis is a fascinating one, but if the hypothesized ninth planet exists, it has so far avoided detection,” said Cambridge University student Antranik Sefilian “We wanted to see whether there could be another, less dramatic and perhaps more natural, cause for the unusual orbits we see. “We thought, rather than allowing for a ninth planet, and then worry about its formation and unusual orbit, why not simply account for the gravity of small objects constituting a disk beyond the orbit of Neptune and see what it does for us?” The Planet Nine hypothesis was first proposed by researchers at Caltech (the California Institute of Technology) who discovered 13 objects in the Kuiper Belt – a donut shaped area of icy bodies beyond Pluto – were all moving together as if being ‘lassoed’ by the gravity of a huge object. After running computer simulations they concluded that only a massive planet, ten times the size of Earth could have such a huge effect. It was so big researchers said it would be ‘the most planety planet of the Solar System.’ The Kuiper Belt sits at the edge of the Solar System and it is all that remains of the original disc of material that created the planets and Sun some 4.6 billion years ago. Most of the belt’s objects - know as Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs) - orbit around the Sun in a circular path, but in 2003, astronomers noticed that some had strange elliptical orbits, as if something was interfering with their rotation. Professor Jihad Touma, from the American University of Beirut, and his former student Sefilian modelled the movement of the TNOs with the combined action of the giant outer planets and a massive icy disk beyond Neptune. Their calculations showed that the model fully explained the odd elongated orbits. “If you remove Planet Nine from the model, and instead allow for lots of small objects scattered across a wide area, collective attractions between those objects could just as easily account for the eccentric orbits we see," added Mr Sefilian “While we don't have direct observational evidence for the disk, neither do we have it for Planet Nine, which is why we're investigating other possibilities. “It's also possible that both things could be true - there could be a massive disk and a ninth planet. With the discovery of each new TNO, we gather more evidence that might help explain their behavior.” Caltech of professor Mike Brown (left) and assistant professor Konstanin Batygin who originally proposed Planet Nine  Credit: Lance Hayashida/Caltech The new hypothesis is backed up by observations which show there is far more leftover debris at the edge of star systems after planet building than previously thought. Computer models of the birth of the Solar System also suggest there should be a lot of building blocks left over. Until now, it was believed that the total mass of all objects in the Kuiper Belt was around on tenth the mass of Earth, but the new calculations suggest it could be up to ten times more than Earth. On New Year’s Day Nasa’s New Horizons spacecraft became the first to fly past a Kuiper Belt object, named Ultima Thule. Pictures beamed back to Earth showed a dark reddish object that looked like a snowman, around 21 miles long and 10 miles wide that spins on its axis once every 15 hours. The new research was published in the Astronomical Journal.



Britain's only satellite-launching rocket to go on display after 48 years in the desert

Britain's only satellite-launching rocket to go on display after 48 years in the desertBritain’s only rocket to successfully launch a satellite into orbit is to finally go on display 48 years after it crashed into the Australian desert. The Black Arrow was launched in 1971 from the Isle of Wight, delivering the Prospero satellite, but the programme was shut down soon after, with the money diverted to build Concorde. Now space technology firm Skyrora has brought the rocket home and is to display it in Penicuik, Midlothian where the company is based. The rocket casing came down in Southern Australia where it was damaged by weather and vandalism.  A plaque will also be placed where Black Arrow had lain. Rocket scientist Ray Wheeler with a scale model of the Black Arrow rocket  Daniel Smith, director at Skyrora, said: “This is quite feasibly the most important artefact linked to the UK's space history. “While our engineers have been working on our own launches, our STEM ambassadors have been arranging all of this in the background. “We'll be unveiling it in Penicuik later this month, not far from our headquarters and workshop in Edinburgh. “With the UK Government aiming to make us a launch nation again, it seemed like the perfect time to bring Black Arrow back. “We really hope the rocket will help to inspire current and future generations of scientists and engineers.” The UK Space Agency has previously announced £2.5 million of funding for a vertical launch spaceport in Sutherland and Skyrora successfully completed its inaugural sub-orbital test launch north of the border last year. Dr Graham Turnock, chief executive of the UK Space Agency, said: "Black Arrow is testament to Britain's long standing heritage in the space sector which continues to thrive today. "The Government's Spaceflight Programme includes a series of education and outreach activities which I hope will play a major role in inspiring the next generation of space scientists, engineers and entrepreneurs."



Elon Musk's New SpaceX Starship: Here's Everything We Know So Far

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Nintendo Rebounds as Optimistic Signs Emerge After a Brutal Year

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